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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2016-177
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
14 Jun 2016
Review status
This discussion paper has been under review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS). The revised manuscript was not accepted.
Hail storm hazard in urban areas: identification and probability of occurrence by using a single-polarization X-band weather radar
Vincenzo Capozzi1, Errico Picciotti2, Vincenzo Mazzarella1, Giorgio Budillon1, and Frank Silvio Marzano2,3 1Department of Science and Technology, University of Naples "Parthenope", Centro Direzionale di Napoli, 80143, Italy
2Centre of Excellence CETEMPS, University of L'Aquila, 67100, Italy
3Dept. of Information Engineering, Sapienza University of Rome, 00184, Italy
Abstract. This work exploits the potentiality of hail warning, based on single-polarization X-band weather radar measurements and tested on a large and well-documented data set of thunderstorm events in southern Italy near Naples. Even though X-band radars may suffer of two-way path attenuation especially at long ranges, due to their relatively low cost their use is rapidly increasing for short-range applications such as urban environments. To identify hail through radar measurements, two different methodologies have been selected and adapted to X-band data within the study area: one uses the Waldvogel (WAL) approach, whereas the other one uses the Vertically-Integrated Liquid Density (VIL-Density) product. The study aims at developing a Probability-of-Hail (POH) index in order to support hail risk management at urban scales. In order to find the optimal threshold values to discriminate between hail and severe rain, an extensive intercomparison between outcomes of the two methodologies and ground truth observations of hail has been performed, using a 2 x 2 contingency table and statistical scores.

The results show that both methods are accurate for hail detection in the area of interest, although VIL-Density product is less satisfactory than WAL method in terms of false alarm ratio. The relationship between the output of these two methodologies and POH has been derived through a heuristic approach, using a third-order polynomial fitting curve. As an example, the POH indexes have been applied for the thunderstorm event occurred on 21 July 2014, proving to be reliable for hail core detection.


Citation: Capozzi, V., Picciotti, E., Mazzarella, V., Budillon, G., and Marzano, F. S.: Hail storm hazard in urban areas: identification and probability of occurrence by using a single-polarization X-band weather radar, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2016-177, 2016.
Vincenzo Capozzi et al.
Vincenzo Capozzi et al.
Vincenzo Capozzi et al.

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Short summary
This work explores the potentialities in urban hailstorms detection of X-band miniradar measurements. The results show that the latter are suitable for early monitoring of hail events at urban scale, especially when combined with conventional meteorological data. The experimental hail detection product developed in this study, although trained for a specific urban environment (i.e. Naples urban area), can be easily adapted to other areas where detailed meteorological information is needed.
This work explores the potentialities in urban hailstorms detection of X-band miniradar...
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