Rapid attribution of the May/June 2016 flood-inducing precipitation in France and Germany to climate change
Geert Jan van Oldenborgh1, Sjoukje Philip1, Emma Aalbers1, Robert Vautard2, Friederike Otto3, Karsten Haustein3, Florence Habets4, Roop Singh5, and Heidi Cullen61Royal Netherlands Meteorological Institute (KNMI), De Bilt, Netherlands 2LSCE/IPSL Laboratoire CEA/CNRS/UVSQ, Gif-sur-Yvette, France 3Environmental Change Institute, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK 4CNR/Pierre & Marie Curie University, Paris, France 5Red Cross Red Crescent Climate Centre, The Hague, Netherlands 6Climate Central, Princeton, US
Received: 16 Jun 2016 – Accepted for review: 22 Jun 2016 – Discussion started: 22 Jun 2016
Abstract. The extreme precipitation that would result in historic flooding across areas of northeastern France and southern Germany began on May 26th when a large cut-off low spurred the development of several slow moving low pressure disturbances. The precipitation took different forms in each country. Warm and humid air from the south fueled sustained, large-scale, heavy rainfall over France resulting in significant river flooding on the Seine and Loire (and their tributaries), whereas the rain came from smaller clusters of intense thunderstorms in Germany triggering flash floods in mountainous areas. The floods left tens of thousands without power, caused over a billion Euros in damage in France alone, and are reported to have killed at least 18 people in Germany, France, Romania, and Belgium. The extreme nature of this event left many asking whether anthropogenic climate change may have played a role. To answer this question objectively, a rapid attribution analysis was performed in near-real time, using the best available observational data and climate models.
In this rapid attribution study, where results were completed and released to the public in one week and an additional week to finalise this article, we present a first estimate of how anthropogenic climate change affected the likelihood of meteorological variables corresponding to the event, 3-day precipitation averaged over the Seine and Loire basins and the spatial maximum of 1-day precipitation over southern Germany (excluding the Alps). We find that the precipitation in the Seine basin was very rare in April–June, with a return time of hundreds of years in this season. It was less rare on the Loire, roughly 1 in 50 years in April–June. At a given location the return times for 1-day precipitation as heavy as the highest observed in southern Germany is 1 in 3000 years in April–June. This translates to once roughly every 20 years somewhere in this region and season.
The probability of 3-day extreme rainfall in this season has increased by about a factor 2.3 (> 1.6) on the Seine a factor 2.0 (> 1.4) on the Loire, with all four climate models that simulated the statistical properties of the extremes agreeing. The observed trend of heavy 1-day precipitation in southern Germany is significantly negative, whereas the one model that has the correct distribution simulates a significant positive trend, making an attribution statement for these thunderstorms impossible at this time.
van Oldenborgh, G. J., Philip, S., Aalbers, E., Vautard, R., Otto, F., Haustein, K., Habets, F., Singh, R., and Cullen, H.: Rapid attribution of the May/June 2016 flood-inducing precipitation in France and Germany to climate change, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-308, 2016.