Journal cover Journal topic
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
doi:10.5194/hess-2016-411
© Author(s) 2016. This work is distributed
under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
Research article
31 Aug 2016
Review status
This discussion paper is under review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS).
Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and ground water in Cangzhou, North China Plain
Songjun Han1,3, Fuqiang Tian2, Ye Liu2, and Xianhui Duan4 1State Key Laboratory of Simulation and Regulation of Water Cycle in River Basin, China Institute of Water Resources and Hydropower Research, Beijing 100038, China
2State Key Laboratory of Hydro-science and Engineering, Department of Hydraulic Engineering, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084, China
3National Center of Efficient Irrigation Engineering and Technology Research, Beijing 100048, China
4Hydrology and Water Resources Survey Bureau of Cangzhou, Cangzhou, 061000, China
Abstract. This paper presents a historical analysis of the coupled human–groundwater system centered on the Cangzhou region in North China Plain, from the socio-hydrologic perspectives. The history of the co-evolution of the system is divided into five eras (i.e., natural, exploitation, degradation and restoration, drought triggered deterioration, and getting back to balance). The balance of the social productive force and natural variability dominate the evolution of the human–groundwater system in Cangzhou, which has been interpreted in terms of the Taiji-Tire model. The interaction between the groundwater utilization and the water table are regarded as the inner Taiji, with the over-exploitation as the major reason for the groundwater depletion, and the groundwater utilization pattern affected by the changing groundwater table. The external drivers of the co-evolution of the human-groundwater system in Cangzhou were specified as the social productive force and natural variability, which represents the outer Tire. An upgrading of the social productive force, which was triggered by the drought during 1997–2002, enhanced the ability to rebalance the human-groundwater system in Cangzhou, and increased the ability to mitigation climate variability. In the future, along with the launch of most strict water resource management strategy and the South-to-North Water Diversion Project, further restoration of groundwater environment could be anticipated. However, the occurrence of drought, as an external environment forcing, still remains an undetermined variable.

Citation: Han, S., Tian, F., Liu, Y., and Duan, X.: Socio-hydrologic perspectives of the co-evolution of humans and ground water in Cangzhou, North China Plain, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., doi:10.5194/hess-2016-411, in review, 2016.
Songjun Han et al.
Songjun Han et al.
Songjun Han et al.

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Short summary
The history of the co-evolution of the coupled human–groundwater system in Cangzhou (a region with the most serious depression cone in the North China Plain) is analyzed with a particular focus on how the groundwater crisis unfolded and how people attempted to settle the crisis. Although further restoration of groundwater environment could be anticipated, the occurrence of drought still remains an undetermined external environment forcing.
The history of the co-evolution of the coupled human–groundwater system in Cangzhou (a region...
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