High-end climate change impact on European water availability and stress: exploring the presence of biases
Summary: A set of the new Euro-CORDEX projections is used to examine the impact of high-end scenarios on water availability and stress at pan-European scale. Drought climatology is investigated for five major European basins along with the impact of +2C versus +4C warming. The effect of bias correction is also examined. The selection of the observational dataset used for bias adjustment has an impact on the projected signal that could be of the same order of magnitude as the selection of the RCM.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 7267-7325, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-7267-2015, 2015
Rainfall erosivity in subtropical catchments and implications for erosion and particle-bound contaminant transfer: a case-study of the Fukushima region
Summary: Characterizing rainfall erosivity in the Fukushima fallout-impacted region is important for predicting radiocesium behaviour. The majority of rainfall (60 %) and rainfall erosivity (86 %) occurs between June and October. Understanding the impact of typhoons will be important for managing sediment and sediment-bound contaminant transfers in the Fukushima region and other subtropical regions impacted by cyclonic activity.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 7225-7266, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-7225-2015, 2015
Accounting for three sources of uncertainty in ensemble hydrological forecasting
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 7179-7223, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-7179-2015, 2015
The SPARSE model for the prediction of water stress and evapotranspiration components from thermal infra-red data and its evaluation over irrigated and rainfed wheat
Summary: The paper presents a new model (SPARSE) to estimate total evapotranspiration as well as its components (evaporation and transpiration) from remote sensing data in the thermal infra-red domain. The limits of computing two unknowns (evaporation and transpiration) out of one piece of information (one surface temperature) is assessed theoretically. The model performance in retrieving the components as well as the water stress, is assessed for two wheat crops (one irrigated and one rainfed).
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 7127-7178, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-7127-2015, 2015
Climate change and its impacts on river discharge in two climate regions in China
Summary: This study quantified the climate impact on river discharge in the River Huangfuchuan in semi-arid northern China and the River Xiangxi in humid southern China. Climate projections showed trends toward warmer and wetter conditions, particularly for the River Huangfuchuan. The main projected hydrologic impact was a more pronounced increase in annual discharge in both catchments. Peak flows was projected to appear earlier than usual in River Huangfuchuan and later than usual in River Xiangxi.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 7099-7126, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-7099-2015, 2015
Effectiveness of a regional model calibrated to different parts of a flow regime in regionalisation
Summary: - Model deficiencies were identified through analysing the non-stationarity nature under different climate conditions. - Model deficiencies influenced on the identification of the relationship between the model parameters and the catchment attributes. - The parameter uncertainty in regionalisation was reduced through improving identifiability of the model parameters representing the different behaviour of the catchment. - This approach is applicable to the catchments in the monsoon areas.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 7057-7098, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-7057-2015, 2015
Importance of maximum snow accumulation for summer low flows in humid catchments
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 7023-7056, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-7023-2015, 2015
Spatial characteristics of severe storms in Hong Kong
Summary: A storm may cause serious damage to infrastructures and public safety. The objective of this paper is to quantify the spatial characteristics of three severe storms in Hong Kong. The spatial distribution of the maximum rolling rainfall is represented by a rotated ellipsoid trend surface and a random field of residuals. The principal directions of the surface trend are between 25° and 45°. The scales of fluctuation of the residuals along eight directions are found between 5 km and 25 km.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6981-7021, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6981-2015, 2015
Green and blue water footprint reduction in irrigated agriculture: effect of irrigation techniques, irrigation strategies and mulching
Summary: This paper provides the first detailed and comprehensive study regarding the potential for reducing the consumptive WF of a crop by changing management practice such as irrigation technique, irrigation strategy and mulching practice. If we consider all the cases of drip or subsurface drip irrigation with synthetic mulching, including all crops and environments, we find an average consumptive WF reduction of 28 - 29%. The corresponding blue WF reduction is 44% and the green WF reduction 14%.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6945-6979, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6945-2015, 2015
Technical note: Analytical solution for the mean drawdown of steady state pumping tests in two-dimensional isotropic heterogeneous aquifers
Summary: A new method is presented which allows to interpret steady state pumping test in heterogeneous transmissivity fields. Based on a radial depending transmissivity, the effective well flow solution is derived for two cases: the ensemble mean of pumping tests and the drawdown at an individual heterogeneous transmissivity field. The analytical form of the solution allows to inversely estimate the parameters of aquifer heterogeneity (mean, variance and correlation length) from pumping test data.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6921-6944, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6921-2015, 2015
Sensitivity of water stress in a two-layered sandy grassland soil to variations in groundwater depth and soil hydraulic parameters
Summary: The sensitivity of the combined model (LINGRA-N and HYDRUS-1D) to hydraulic parameters, water stress, crop yield and lower boundary conditions was assessed. We showed that it is sufficient to estimate limited amount of key parameters in optimization strategies. A combined modeling approach could increase water use efficiency (12-22.5%) and yield (5-7%) by changing irrigation scheduling. Result calls for taking into account weather forecast and soil water content data in precision agriculture.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6881-6920, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6881-2015, 2015
Development and verification of a real-time stochastic precipitation nowcasting system for urban hydrology in Belgium
Summary: The Short-Term Ensemble Prediction System (STEPS) is implemented in real-time at the Royal Meteorological Institute of Belgium (STEPS-BE). The idea behind STEPS is to quantify the forecast uncertainty by adding stochastic perturbations to the deterministic extrapolation of radar images. In this paper we present the deterministic, probabilistic and ensemble verification of STEPS-BE forecasts using four precipitation cases that caused sewer system overflow in the cities of Leuven and Ghent.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6831-6879, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6831-2015, 2015
The Budyko framework beyond stationarity
Summary: A major limitation of the widely-used Budyko framework is its limitation to steady-state conditions. In this study we analytically derive a new, two-parameter formulation of the Budyko framework that allows for non-stationary conditions. We further show by using global, standard gridded estimates of precipitation, evapotranspiration and potential evaporation, that the new formulation is capable to represent first-order seasonal dynamics within the hydroclimatological system.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6799-6830, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6799-2015, 2015
Distributed model of hydrological and sediment transport processes in large river basins in Southeast Asia
Summary: The uniqueness of this sediment model is the ability to simulate the sediment transport processes separately on hillslope and in river channel in each grid within a large river basin. The sub-model of river channel is able to simulate deposition and detachment using relevant physical equations. This model can identify the locations of severe sediment dynamics occurred by a fine grid scale and can output spatial distribution of soil erosion sediment transport and deposition in entire river basin.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6755-6797, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6755-2015, 2015
The Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen: a hypotheses driven observatory
Summary: This paper illustrates the experimental and monitoring setup of the 66 ha Hydrological Open Air Laboratory (HOAL) in Petzenkirchen, Lower Austria, which allows meaningful hypothesis testing. The HOAL catchment features a range of different runoff generation processes (surface runoff, springs, tile drains, wetlands), and is convenient from a logistic point of view as all instruments can be connected to the power grid and a high speed glassfibre Local Area Network.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6683-6753, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6683-2015, 2015
Spatio-temporal assessment of WRF, TRMM and in situ precipitation data in a tropical mountain environment (Cordillera Blanca, Peru)
Summary: Three different types of gridded precipitation products are compared in a high glaciated tropical mountain environment (Cordillera Blanca, Peru): ground based interpolation, satellite derived product (TRMM3B42), and outputs from the regional climate model WRF. While none of the products meets the challenge of representing both accumulated quantities and frequency of occurrence at the short time scale, we concluded that new methods should be used to merge those various precipitation products.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6635-6681, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6635-2015, 2015
Investigating the impact of land-use land-cover change on Indian summer monsoon daily rainfall and temperature during 1951–2005 using a regional climate model
Summary: Regional climate model (RegCM4) simulations demonstrate that part of the observed decrease in moderate rainfall events during summer monsoon season over central India from 1951 to 2005 is attributed to anthropogenically induced land-use land-cover change (LULCC). LULCC also explains a warming in the daily mean and maximum temperature by 1-1.2oC, that is comparable with the observed increasing trend. This study shows the importance of LULCC in the context of regional climate change over India.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6575-6633, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6575-2015, 2015
At the risk of floodwaters: historical flood risk and its social impacts in the area of the Wash in eastern England (Cambridgeshire, Norfolk, Lincolnshire) Mid 17th century–end of the 19th century
Summary: The floods were classified according to a severity scale derived from the contents of the historical sources. It enables an evaluation of these events in spite of the lack of instrumental data for the major part of period. It shows that the chronology and the severity of the floods in this part of England were contradictory from one century to another. We then shows that local societies at the time did not passively suffer the risk of flood.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6541-6573, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6541-2015, 2015
Temperature and rainfall estimates for past 18 000 years in Owens Valley, California with a coupled catchment–lake model
Summary: This study simulates paleolake extent in Owens Valley, California in the last 18ka. A coupled catchment-lake model is developed which is capable of accurately simulating lake extent as a function of modern climate and paleoclimate. Through these simulations, the paleoclimate information including annual precipitation and temperature can be quantitatively estimated against field evidence in a catchment-lake hydrologic system.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6505-6539, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6505-2015, 2015
Estimating spatially distributed soil water content at small watershed scales based on decomposition of temporal anomaly and time stability analysis
Summary: Spatiotemporal SWC was decomposed into into three terms (spatial forcing, temporal forcing, and interactions between spatial and temporal forcing) for near surface and root zone; Empirical orthogonal function indicated that underlying patterns exist in the interaction term at small watershed scales; Estimation of spatially distributed SWC benefits from decomposition of the interaction term; The suggested decomposition of SWC with time stability analysis has potential in SWC downscaling.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6467-6503, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6467-2015, 2015
Impacts of grid resolution on surface energy fluxes simulated with an integrated surface-groundwater flow model
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6437-6466, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6437-2015, 2015
Linking biogeochemistry to hydro-geometrical variability in tidal estuaries: a generic modeling approach
Summary: A generic estuarine model is applied to three idealized tidal estuaries representing the main hydro-geometrical estuarine classes. The study provides insight on the estuarine biogeochemical dynamics, in particular the air-water CO2 flux, as well as on the potential response to future environmental changes and to uncertainties in model parameter values. We believe that our approach could help improving upscaling strategies to better integrate estuaries in regional/global biogeochemical studies.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6351-6435, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6351-2015, 2015
Enhancing the T-shaped learning profile when teaching hydrology using data, modeling, and visualization activities
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6327-6350, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6327-2015, 2015
Land-use changes reinforce the impacts of climate change on annual runoff dynamics in a southeast China coastal watershed
Summary: The L-R diagram was developed to reveal that land-use changes has reinforced the impact of climate changes on annual runoff dynamic in a Southeast China coastal watershed. Deforestation played significant role to generate overflow runoff in a watershed during heavy precipitation. In contrast, reforestation enabled watershed to store more water in a catchment during dry year. This study inferred that severe drought and flood in the future cannot be fully addressed as an impact of climate changes.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6305-6325, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6305-2015, 2015
High frequency monitoring of water fluxes and nutrient loads to assess the effects of controlled drainage on water storage and nutrient transport
Summary: Controlled drainage has been recognized as an effective option to optimize soil moisture conditions for agriculture and to reduce unnecessary losses of fresh water and nutrients. For a grassland field in The Netherlands we measured the changes in the field water and solute balance after introducing controlled drainage. We concluded that controlled drainage reduced the drain discharge and increased the groundwater storage in the field, but did not have clear positive effects for water quality.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6275-6304, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6275-2015, 2015
Determining the stable isotope composition of pore water from saturated and unsaturated zone core: improvements to the direct vapor equilibration laser spectroscopy method
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6241-6274, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6241-2015, 2015
Hydrologic extremes – an intercomparison of multiple gridded statistical downscaling methods
Summary: Seven gridded statistical downscaling methods are tested for strength in simulating climate and hydrologic extremes. A recently developed technique, which is a post-processed version of Bias Corrected Constructed Analogues where the final bias correction is based on the Bias Corrected Climate Imprint method, is shown to be an especially strong method for hydrologic extremes versus other more commonly applied methods including the popular Bias Corrected Spatial Disaggregation method.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6179-6239, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6179-2015, 2015
Assessing changes on urban flood vulnerability through mapping land use from historical information
Summary: This paper presents an appraisal of flood vulnerability of two French cities, Besançon and Moissac, which have been largely impacted by two ancient major floods (respect. in January 1910 and March 1930). An analysis of historical sources allows the mapping of land use and occupation within the flood extent of the two historical floods, both in past and present contexts. It gives an insight of the complexity of flood risk evolution, at a local scale.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6151-6177, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6151-2015, 2015
In-situ unsaturated zone stable water isotope (2H and 18O) measurements in semi-arid environments using tunable off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6115-6149, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6115-2015, 2015
Initial assessment of a multi-model approach to spring flood forecasting in Sweden
Summary: New approaches to spring flood forecasting, that reflect the latest developments with respect to analysis and modelling on seasonal time scales, are presented and evaluated. Three main approaches, represented by specific methods, are evaluated in spring-flood hindcasts for three Swedish rivers over a 10-year period. When combining all forecasts in a weighted multi-model approach, a mean improvement over all locations and lead times of nearly 10% was indicated, as compared with today's approach.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6077-6113, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6077-2015, 2015
Satellite signal shows storage-unloading subsidence in North China
Summary: There has been excessive (surface and subsurface) water use in North China for several decades now. Why this has enhanced productivity, it has its environmental consequences. This study is a novel use of GRACE and various hydro-geodetic data in analyzing storage depletion subsidence in North China, which condition further reduces water storage. The concurrence of storage loss and land subsidence threatens social stability.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6043-6075, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6043-2015, 2015
Estimation of flood warning runoff thresholds in ungauged basins with asymmetric error functions
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 6011-6041, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-6011-2015, 2015
Evaluating the utility of satellite soil moisture retrievals over irrigated areas and the ability of land data assimilation methods to correct for unmodeled processes
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5967-6009, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5967-2015, 2015
The cost of ending groundwater overdraft on the North China Plain
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5931-5966, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5931-2015, 2015
Influence of environmental factors on spectral characteristic of chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in Inner Mongolia Plateau, China
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5895-5929, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5895-2015, 2015
Spatiotemporal variability of oxygen isotope compositions in three contrasting glacier river catchments in Greenland
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5841-5893, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5841-2015, 2015
South Asia river flow projections and their implications for water resources
Summary: South Asia is a highly variable region where there is concern over water and food security. The simulations presented suggest an increasing trend in water resources, in some cases almost doubling by the end of the century although this is masked by the large annual variability of river flows for this region. Future peak river flows still occur during the Monsoon period, with a tendancy for reduced frequency of lowest flows and increased magnitude of highest flows across the selected locations.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5789-5840, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5789-2015, 2015
Correction of real-time satellite precipitation with satellite soil moisture observations
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5749-5787, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5749-2015, 2015
Effective damage zone volume of fault zones and initial salinity distribution determine intensity of shallow aquifer salinization in geological underground utilization
Summary: The degree of shallow aquifer salinization triggered by fluid injection into deeper brine-bearing aquifers and brine upward migration through hydraulically conductive faults strongly depends on the regional depth of the freshwater-saltwater boundary, since displaced brines originate only from the upper fault damage zones in the study area. The highest local salinity increase in shallow aquifers occurs in case of closed model boundaries and low fault damage zone volumes.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5703-5748, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5703-2015, 2015
The effect of empirical-statistical correction of intensity-dependent model errors on the climate change signal
Summary: The effect of empirical-statistical bias correction methods like quantile mapping (QM) on the simulated climate change signals (CCS) is currently strongly discussed and is often regarded as deficiency of bias correction methods. We demonstrate that, quite the contrary, QM can lead to an improved CCS and has also the potential to serve as an empirical constraint on model uncertainty in climate projections.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5671-5701, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5671-2015, 2015
Assessing the quality of Digital Elevation Models obtained from mini-Unmanned Aerial Vehicles for overland flow modelling in urban areas
Summary: Precise and detailed DEMs are essential to accurately predict overland flow in urban areas. In this this study we evaluated whether DEMs generated from UAV imagery are suitable for urban drainage overland flow modelling. Specifically, fourteen UAV flights were conducted to assess the influence of four different flight parameters on the quality of generated DEMs. In addition, we compared the best quality UAV DEM to a conventional LiDAR-based DEM; the two DEMs are of comparable quality.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5629-5670, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5629-2015, 2015
Biogeochemical processes controlling density stratification in an iron-meromictic lake
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5601-5628, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5601-2015, 2015
Joint inference of groundwater-recharge and hydraulic-conductivity fields from head data using the Ensemble-Kalman filter
Summary: Groundwater recharge and hydraulic conductivity are both important properties of a groundwater model. However, an erroneous conductivity field can be compensated by a false recharge field to construct the same type of hydraulic head observations. In this work we show that prior knowledge is very important when estimating parameter fields from ambiguous data (such as head observations). If the prior information is reasonable, the joint parameter estimation can be possible.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5565-5599, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5565-2015, 2015
Review and classification of indicators of green water availability and scarcity
Summary: The paper draws attention to the fact that green water (soil moisture directly returning to the atmosphere as evaporation) is a scarce resource, because its availability is limited and there are competing demands for green water. Around 80 indicators of green water availability and scarcity are reviewed and classified. Future research directions to develop operational green water scarcity indicators, that can broaden the scope of water scarcity assessments, are discussed.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5519-5564, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5519-2015, 2015
Sensitivity of water scarcity events to ENSO driven climate variability at the global scale
Summary: Freshwater shortage is one of the most important risks, partially driven by climate variability. Here we present a first global scale sensitivity assessment of water scarcity events to El Niño-Southern Oscillation, the most dominant climate variability signal. Given the found correlations, covering a large share of the global land area, and seen the developments of water scarcity impacts under changing socioeconomic conditions, we show that there is large potential for ENSO-based risk reduction.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5465-5517, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5465-2015, 2015
Transit times from rainfall to baseflow in headwater catchments estimated using tritium: the Ovens River, Australia
Summary: This study documents the age of river water in the upper parts of catchments using radioactive tracers (tritium). River water in the upper Ovens Valley (Australia) is several years to decades old and water from different parts of the catchment (e.g., soil, regolith, and groundwater) is mobilised at different flow conditions. The results indicate that these rivers are buffered against short term climate variability but are susceptible to longer-term climate and land use changes.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5427-5463, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5427-2015, 2015
Accounting for dependencies in regionalized signatures for predictions in ungauged catchments
Summary: The absence of flow data to calibrate hydrologic models may reduce the ability of such models to reliably inform water resources management. To address this limitation, it is common to condition hydrological model parameters on regionalized signatures. In this study, we justify the inclusion of larger sets of signatures in the regionalization procedure if their error correlations are formally accounted for and thus enables a more complete use of all available information.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5389-5426, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5389-2015, 2015
Closing the water balance with cosmic-ray soil moisture measurements and assessing their spatial variability within two semiarid watersheds
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5343-5388, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5343-2015, 2015
Regionalisation of groundwater droughts using hydrograph classification
Summary: To improve the design of drought monitoring networks and water resource management during episodes of drought, there is a need for a better understanding of spatial variations in the response of aquifers to major meteorological droughts. This paper is the first to describe a suite of methods to quantify such variations. Using an analysis of groundwater level data for a case study from the UK, the influence of catchment characteristics on the varied response of groundwater to droughts is explored
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5293-5341, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5293-2015, 2015
Trends in West African floods: a comparative analysis with rainfall and vegetation indices
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5083-5121, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5083-2015, 2015
Creating long term gridded fields of reference evapotranspiration in Alpine terrain based on a re-calibrated Hargreaves method
Summary: Gridded fields of daily max. and min. Temperatures for the Austrian domain are used to calculate ET0 based on a re-calibrated Hargreaves method. Newly derived, station based calibration parameters, with Penman-Monteith ET0 as a reference, show a distinct altitude and seasonal dependence. Theses features are used to interpolate the new calibration values in space and time onto the temperature grids. The ET0 is then calculated based on the entire gridded temperature data starting back in 1961.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 5055-5082, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-5055-2015, 2015
Integrated water system simulation by considering hydrological and biogeochemical processes: model development, parameter sensitivity and autocalibration
Summary: We extended a semi-distributed hydrological model (TVGM) to an integrated water system model by coupling multiple water-related processes in hydrology, biogeochemistry, water quality and ecology, and considering the interference of human activities. The parameter sensitivity and autocalibration modules were developed to improve the simulation efficiency. The extended model was applied in the Shaying River Catchment, which is a highly regulated and heavily polluted region in China.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 4997-5053, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-4997-2015, 2015
Uncertainty analysis for evaluating the accuracy of snow depth measurements
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 4157-4190, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-4157-2015, 2015
Hydrological model parameter dimensionality is a weak measure of prediction uncertainty
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3945-4004, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3945-2015, 2015
On the spatial organization of the ridge slough patterned landscape
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2975-3010, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2975-2015, 2015
Spatially-distributed influence of agro-environmental factors governing nitrate fate and transport in an irrigated stream-aquifer system
Summary: Nitrate contamination in agricultural groundwater systems is a concern in many regions worldwide. In this study, a model is applied to a regional-scale irrigated stream-aquifer system to identify the system inputs and processes that govern nitrate fate and transport at multiple scales: for the entire study region, for spatial areas irrigated by individual canals, and for individual cultivated fields. Results can be used to guide the localized application of best management practices.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1653-1696, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1653-2015, 2015