Hydrological model parameter dimensionality is a weak measure of prediction uncertainty
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3945-4004, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3945-2015, 2015
Effects of changes in moisture source and the upstream rainout on stable isotopes in summer precipitation – a case study in Nanjing, East China
Summary: We examined the variability of daily stable isotopic composition (δ18O) in summer precipitation in Nanjing, East China. We found that δ18O was not significantly correlated with local rainfall amount, but could be linked to changes in the location and rainout processes of precipitation source regions. Thus, changes in moisture source location and upstream rainout effect should be taken into account when interpreting the stable isotopic composition of speleothems in the Asian monsoon region.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3919-3944, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3919-2015, 2015
Long-term and high frequency non-destructive monitoring of water stable isotope profiles in an evaporating soil column
Summary: Water stable isotopes profiles in a soil column let to evaporate for a period of 290 days in the laboratory were followed in a non-destructive manner and with high precision Rewatering at the end of the experiment led to instantaneous resetting of the stable isotope profiles, which could be closely followed with the new method We observed the progressive invasion of atmosphere water vapor in the upper soil layers The evaporation depth dynamics was determined from isotope gradients calculation
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3893-3918, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3893-2015, 2015
Reconstructing the natural hydrology of the San Francisco Bay-Delta watershed
Summary: The development of California was facilitated by redistributing water from native vegetation to other uses, accompanied by significant declines in native aquatic species, which have been attributed to reductions in Delta outflow. Reconstructing the natural landscape and using water balances to estimate long-term annual average Delta outflow, current and natural outflows are about equal as the amount of water currently consumed is similar to the amount of water formerly used by native vegetation.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3847-3892, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3847-2015, 2015
Stochastic approach to analyzing the uncertainties and possible changes in the availability of water in the future based on a climate change scenario
Summary: The objective of this study was to analyze the changes and uncertainties related to water availability in the future, in the Ijuí river basin (south of Brazil), using a stochastic approach. In general the results showed a trend to increased flows. It can be concluded that there is a tendency to increase the hydrological variability during the period between 2011-2040, which indicates the possibility of occurrence of time series with more marked periods of droughts and floods.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3787-3846, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3787-2015, 2015
Improving multi-objective reservoir operation optimization with sensitivity-informed problem decomposition
Summary: This study investigates the effectiveness of a sensitivity-informed method for multi-objective operation of reservoir systems, which uses a global sensitivity analysis method to screen out insensitive decision variables and thus forms simplified problems with a significantly reduced number of decision variables. We find that it is important to consider variable interactions when formulating simplified problems, and problem decomposition dramatically improves search efficiency and effectiveness.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3719-3752, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3719-2015, 2015
Identification of spatial and temporal contributions of rainfalls to flash floods using neural network modelling: case study on the Lez Basin (Southern France)
Summary: Flash floods are important hazards in urbanised zone and constitute important human and financial stakes. This paper applies a recent methodology (KnoX) dedicated to extract knowledge from a neural network model in order to better know the contributions and time responses of several geographic zones of an aquifer. A case study is chosen in France: the Lez karst hydrosystem whose river crosses the conurbation of Montpellier (400 000 inhabitants). Results will help flood warning service.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3681-3718, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3681-2015, 2015
Climate elasticity of streamflow revisited – an elasticity index based on long-term hydrometeorological records
Summary: We present a new method to derive the empirical (i.e., data-based) elasticity of streamflow to precipitation and potential evaporation. This method, which uses long-term hydrometeorological records, is tested on a set of 519 French catchments. We compare our method with the classical approach found in the literature and demonstrate its robustness and efficiency. Empirical elasticity is a powerful tool to test the extrapolation capacity of hydrological models.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3645-3679, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3645-2015, 2015
Water savings potentials of irrigation systems: dynamic global simulation
Summary: We present dynamically simulated estimates of global irrigation efficiencies for the world’s major crop types. Hence, this study advances the global quantification of irrigation systems while providing a framework for assessing potential future transitions in these systems, a prerequisite for refined simulation of crop yields under climate change. We reveal for many river basins the potential for sizeable water savings and related increases in water productivity through irrigation improvements.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3593-3644, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3593-2015, 2015
Predicting land use and soil controls on erosion and sediment redistribution in agricultural loess areas: model development and cross scale verification
Summary: This paper presents the development, parameterization and verification of a process-based soil erosion model for the catchment scale, which balances necessary complexity with greatest possible simplicity. We used the hydrologic model CATFLOW as a platform and further developed it to CATFLOW-SED by integrating approaches to simulate soil erosion. The model was validated on a hierarchy of scales which is characteristic for the governing processes.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3527-3592, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3527-2015, 2015
Towards ecosystem accounting: a comprehensive approach to modelling multiple hydrological ecosystem services
Summary: Our study shows that integrating hydrological ecosystem services in an ecosystem accounting framework provides relevant information on watershed ecosystems and hydrological ecosystem services at appropriate scales suitable for decision-making. They show that for watershed management, land use planning and land management, measurement of ecosystem service flow should go hand in hand with managing ecosystem service capacity.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3477-3526, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3477-2015, 2015
Non–stationarity in annual maxima rainfall across Australia – implications for Intensity–Frequency–Duration (IFD) relationships
Summary: Rainfall intensity-frequency-duration (IFD) relationships are required for the design and planning of water supply and management systems around the world. Currently IFD information is based on the ‘stationary climate assumption’. However, this study provides proof of non-stationarity in annual maxima rainfall timeseries. Importantly, current IFD relationships may under- or over-estimate the design rainfall.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3449-3475, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3449-2015, 2015
A 2600 year history of floods in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland: frequencies, mechanisms and climate forcing
Summary: A 2600-yr long composite palaeoflood record is reconstructed from high-resolution delta plain sediments of the Hasli-Aare floodplain on the northern slope of the Swiss Alps. Natural proxies compiled from sedimentary, geochemical and geomorphological data were calibrated by textual and factual sources and instrumental data. Geomorphological, historical and instrumental data provide evidence for flood damage intensities and discharge estimations of severe and catastrophic historical floods.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3391-3448, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3391-2015, 2015
Phosphorus dynamics in lowland streams as a response to climatic, hydrological and agricultural land use gradients
Summary: We evaluated the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on the concentrations and export of phosphorus (P) in four streams under contrasting climate (C: temperate and subtropical) and hydrological (H: stable and flashy) regimes, while comparing different estimation methods. The impact of AI differed between the contrasting C-H regimes. The observed patterns seem to reflect effects of different environmental regulations of agriculture, currently being more important than other factors.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3349-3390, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3349-2015, 2015
Moving sociohydrology forward: a synthesis across studies
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3319-3348, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3319-2015, 2015
Sources of uncertainty in rainfall maps from cellular communication networks
Summary: Commercial cellular networks are built for telecommunication purposes. These kind of networks have lately been used to obtain rainfall maps at country-wide scales. Based on a previous study, we now quantify the uncertaintes associated to such maps. To do so, we divided the sources or error into two categories: from microwave link measurements, and from mapping. It was found that the former is the source that contributes the most to the overall error in rainfall maps from microwave link networks.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3289-3317, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3289-2015, 2015
Flood triggering in Switzerland: the role of daily to monthly preceding precipitation
Summary: We investigate precipitation characteristics prior to 4000 annual floods in Switzerland since 1961. The floods were preceded by heavy precipitation, but in most catchments extreme precipitation occurred only during the last 3 days prior to the flood events. Precipitation sums for earlier time periods (like e.g. 4-14 days prior to floods) were mostly average and do not correlate with the return period of the floods.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3245-3288, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3245-2015, 2015
Soil moisture–precipitation coupling: observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and underlying physical mechanisms
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3205-3243, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3205-2015, 2015
Operational aspects of asynchronous filtering for hydrological forecasting
Summary: This is the first analysis of the Asynchronous Ensemble Kalman Filter in hydrological forecasting. The results of discharge assimilation into a hydrological model for the Ourthe catchment show that including past predictions and observations in the filter improves model forecasts. Additionally, we show that elimination of the strongly non-linear relation between soil moisture and assimilated discharge observations from the model update becomes beneficial for improved operational forecasting.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3169-3203, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3169-2015, 2015
Aggregation in environmental systems: catchment mean transit times and young water fractions under hydrologic nonstationarity
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3105-3167, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3105-2015, 2015
Aggregation in environmental systems: seasonal tracer cycles quantify young water fractions, but not mean transit times, in spatially heterogeneous catchments
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3059-3103, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3059-2015, 2015
Qualitative soil moisture assessment in semi-arid Africa: the role of experience and training on inter-rater reliability
Summary: A field method for assessing soil moisture in semi-arid conditions is proposed and tested in terms of interrater reliability with 40 Tanzanian farmers, students and experts. The seven wetness classes are based on qualitative indicators that one can see, feel or hear. It could be shown that the qualitative wetness classes reflect differences in volumetric water content and neither experience, nor a certain level of education was a prerequisite to gain high agreement among raters.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3029-3058, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3029-2015, 2015
The representation of location by regional climate models in complex terrain
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3011-3028, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3011-2015, 2015
On the spatial organization of the ridge slough patterned landscape
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2975-3010, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2975-2015, 2015
Use of satellite and modelled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale
Summary: We developed a new formulation of USLE, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), that directly incorporates soil moisture information. SM4E is applied here by using modelled data and satellite observations obtained from the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). SM4E is found to outperform USLE and USLE-MM models in a silty-clay soil in Central Italy. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying SM4E for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2945-2973, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2945-2015, 2015
Large-scale hydrological modelling by using modified PUB recommendations: the India-HYPE case
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2885-2944, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2885-2015, 2015
Turbidity in the fluvial Gironde Estuary (S–W France) based on 10 year continuous monitoring: sensitivity to hydrological conditions
Summary: This study aims to analyse for the first time suspended sediment dynamics in the fluvial Gironde through a unique set of a 10-years continuous turbidity record. We demonstrate: the interest of turbidity-discharge hysteresis loops to evaluate the presence of sediment depositions; the relationships between features of the turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) and river flow; and the definition of hydrological indicators of the persistence and concentration of the TMZ.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2843-2883, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2843-2015, 2015
Accelerated gravity testing of aquitard core permeability and implications at formation and regional scale
Summary: Low permeability sediments and rock can leak slowly, yet can act as important barriers to flow for resource development and for waste sequestration. Relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic tests of ‘tight’ geological materials are possible by accelerating gravity. Results from geotechnical centrifuge testing of drill core and in situ pore pressure monitoring were compared with a regional flow model, and considered in the context of inherent geological variability at site and formation scale.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2799-2841, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2799-2015, 2015
Nonstationarity of low flows and their timing in the eastern United States
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2761-2798, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2761-2015, 2015
Technical Note: Approximate solution of transient drawdown for constant-flux pumping at a partially penetrating well in a radial two-zone confined aquifer
Summary: Existing solutions for the problem of constant-flux pumping (CFP) in a two-zone confined aquifer involve laborious calculation. This study develops a new approximate solution for the problem. The solution is in terms of a simple series expanded by integers and thus very convenient for those who are not familiar with numerical methods. A quantitative criterion for the validity of neglecting the vertical flow component due to a partially penetrating well is provided.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2741-2760, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2741-2015, 2015
Identifying the controls of soil loss in agricultural catchments using ex situ turbidity-based suspended sediment monitoring
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2707-2740, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2707-2015, 2015
Impacts of climate change on temperature, precipitation and hydrology in Finland – studies using bias corrected Regional Climate Model data
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2657-2706, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2657-2015, 2015
Uniform flow formulas for irregular sections
Summary: We present two new methods for uniform flow computation, named LHRM and INCM Calibration and 1st validation from laboratory experimental data 2nd validation by field discharge hydrographs estimated by measured water level data 3rd validation from 3D solution of CFX code applied to a reach of the Alzette river
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2607-2655, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2607-2015, 2015
Downscaling future precipitation extremes to urban hydrology scales using a spatio-temporal Neyman–Scott weather generator
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2561-2605, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2561-2015, 2015
Characterization of precipitation product errors across the US using multiplicative Triple Collocation
Summary: This paper introduces a new variant of the Triple Collocation technique with multiplicative error model. The method is applied, for the first time, to precipitation products across the central part of Continental US. Results show distinctive patterns of error variance in each product that are estimated without assuming any distribution for the errors a priori. The correlation coefficients between each product and the truth is also estimated which provides another performance perspective.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2527-2559, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2527-2015, 2015
Simulating the regional water balance through hydrological model based on TRMM satellite rainfall data
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2497-2525, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2497-2015, 2015
Technical Note: Variability of flow discharge in lateral inflow-dominated stream channels
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2477-2495, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2477-2015, 2015
Vulnerability of groundwater resources to interaction with river water in a boreal catchment
Summary: Based on low altitude aerial infrared survey, around 370 groundwater–surface water interaction sites were located. Longitudinal temperature patterns, stable isotopes and dissolved silica composition of the studied rivers differed. Interaction sites identified in the proximity of 12 municipal water plants during low-flow seasons should be considered as potential risk areas during flood periods, and should be taken under consideration in river basin management under changing climatic situations.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2435-2476, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2435-2015, 2015
Hydrological connectivity as indicated by transport of diatoms through the riparian–stream system
Summary: We tested the hypothesis that different diatom species assemblages inhabit specific moisture domains of the catchment and, consequently, the presence of certain species assemblages in the stream during runoff events inform about hydrological connectivity between these domains. Diatom identification in the different domains suggested rapid connectivity between the soil surface and the stream during events. Results were compared to two-component hydrograph separation and end-member mixing analysis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2391-2434, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2391-2015, 2015
Investigating temporal field sampling strategies for site-specific calibration of three soil moisture – neutron intensity parameterisation methods
Summary: The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor can provide soil moisture content averages over areas of roughly half a kilometre by half a kilometre. Although this sensor is usually calibrated using soil samples taken on a single day, we found multiple sampling days are needed. The calibration results were also affected by the soil wetness conditions of the sampling days. The outcome of this study will help researchers to calibrate/validate new Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor sites more accurately.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2349-2389, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2349-2015, 2015
Large-basin hydrological response to climate model outputs: uncertainty caused by the internal atmospheric variability
Summary: Our paper is one of very few studies where influence of the stochastic internal atmospheric variability (IAV) on the hydrological response is analyzed. On the basis of the ensemble experiments with GCM and hydrological models, we found, e.g., that averaging over ensemble members filters stochastic term related to IAV, and that a considerable portion of the simulated trend in the annual Lena R. runoff can be explained by the externally forced signal (global SST and SIC changes in our experiments)
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2305-2348, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2305-2015, 2015
Data assimilation in integrated hydrological modeling using ensemble Kalman filtering: evaluating the effect of ensemble size and localization on filter performance
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2267-2304, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2267-2015, 2015
Spatially shifting temporal points: estimating pooled within-time series variograms for scarce hydrological data
Summary: We developed an alternative method (SSTP) for estimating pooled variograms for geostatistical interpolation of spatially scarce hydrological data. The method relies on the availability of time series and spatializes temporal data by shifting them. We applied SSTP for geostatistical interpolation of a precipitation series in a spatial data-scarce region. SSTP outperforms the available method (AEV) for estimating pooled variograms. We provide an example R script with test data for reproducibility.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2243-2265, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2243-2015, 2015
Integration of 2-D hydraulic model and high-resolution LiDAR-derived DEM for floodplain flow modeling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2011-2046, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2011-2015, 2015
5 year radar-based rainfall statistics: disturbances analysis and development of a post-correction scheme for the German radar composite
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1765-1808, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1765-2015, 2015
Temporal parameter sensitivity guided verification of process dynamics
Summary: To ensure reliable model results, hydrological processes have to be represented adequately in the model structure. We present a framework that uses temporal dynamics of parameter sensitivity to verify the coincidence between modelled and expected hydrological processes in the catchment. The framework is exemplarily applied on a modified groundwater model component. The results show that the behaviour of the groundwater parameters is consistent with the idea behind the structural modifications.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1729-1764, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1729-2015, 2015
Spatially-distributed influence of agro-environmental factors governing nitrate fate and transport in an irrigated stream-aquifer system
Summary: Nitrate contamination in agricultural groundwater systems is a concern in many regions worldwide. In this study, a model is applied to a regional-scale irrigated stream-aquifer system to identify the system inputs and processes that govern nitrate fate and transport at multiple scales: for the entire study region, for spatial areas irrigated by individual canals, and for individual cultivated fields. Results can be used to guide the localized application of best management practices.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1653-1696, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1653-2015, 2015
Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)
Summary: A conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing was developed using a combination of hydrogeochemistry, isotopes and multivariate analysis. The implementation to the case of Guadalajara showed that groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal water, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. The multivariate mixing model (M3) was used to calculate the proportion of different fluids in sampled well water. The result helps authorities in decision making.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1599-1631, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1599-2015, 2015
Projected changes in US erosivity
Summary: We estimate future changes in US erosivity from the most recent ensemble projections of daily and monthly rainfall accumulation. The expectation of overall increase in erosivity is confirmed by these calculations, but a quantitative assessment is marred by large uncertainties. Specifically, the uncertainty in the method of estimation of erosivity is more consequential than that deriving from the spread in climate simulations, and leads to changes of uncertain sign in parts of the South.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1469-1506, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1469-2015, 2015
Assessment of Halon-1301 as a groundwater age tracer
Summary: We assess the potential of Halon-1301 as a new groundwater age tracer, which had not been assessed in detail. We determine Halon-1301 and infer age in 17 New Zealand groundwater and various modern waters. Halon-1301 reliably inferred age in 71% of the sites within +/- 2 years of the ages inferred from tritium and SF6. The remaining (anoxic) waters show reduced concentrations of Halon-1301 along with even further reduced concentrations of CFCs. The reason(s) for this need to be further assessed.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1397-1436, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1397-2015, 2015
High-quality observation of surface imperviousness for urban runoff modelling using UAV imagery
Summary: We investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. We show that imperviousness maps generated using UAV imagery processed with modern classification methods achieve accuracy comparable with standard, off-the-shelf aerial imagery. We conclude that UAV imagery represents a valuable alternative data source for urban drainage model applications.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1205-1245, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1205-2015, 2015
Definition of efficient scarcity-based water pricing policies through stochastic programming
Summary: One of the most promising alternatives to improve the efficiency in water usage is the implementation of scarcity-based pricing policies, based on the opportunity cost of water at the basin scale. Time series of the marginal value of water at selected locations (reservoirs) are obtained using a stochastic hydro-economic model and then post-processed to define step water pricing policies.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 771-799, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-771-2015, 2015
Revised predictive equations for salt intrusion modelling in estuaries
Summary: We revised the predictive equations for two calibrated parameters in salt intrusion model (the Van der Burgh coefficient K and dispersion coefficient D) using an extended database of 89 salinity profiles including 8 newly conducted salinity measurements. The revised predictive equations consist of easily measured parameters such as the geometry of estuary, tide, friction and the Richardson Number. These equations are useful in obtaining the first estimate of salinity distribution in an estuary.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 739-770, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-739-2015, 2015
Precipitation in the Amazon and its relationship with moisture transport and tropical Pacific and Atlantic SST from the CMIP5 simulation
Summary: Studies on numerical modeling in Amazonia show that the models fail to capture important aspects of climate variability in this region and it is important to understand the reasons that cause this drawback. We study how the general circulation models of the CMIP5 simulate the inter-relations between regional precipitation, moisture convergence and SST in the adjacent oceans, to assess how flaws in the representation of these processes can translate into biases in simulated rainfall in Amazonia.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 671-704, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-671-2015, 2015
Evaluation of precipitation extremes and floods and comparison between their temporal distributions
Summary: We proposed three analogous indices that enable to evaluate and to compare the extremity of precipitation events and floods. Precipitation extremes are considered both regardless and regarding of the season. We present sets of extremes from the period of 1961–2010 in the Czech Republic and demonstrate the fact that the temporal distributions of them are not identical. It shows that not only changes in precipitation extremity but also in their seasonality could produce changes in flood extremity.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 281-310, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-281-2015, 2015
Analyses of uncertainties and scaling of groundwater level fluctuations
Summary: The error or uncertainty in head, obtained with an analytical or numerical solution, in early time is mainly caused by the random initial condition and the error reduces as time goes to reach a constant error in later time. The constant error in later time is mainly due to the effects of the uncertain source/sink. The error caused by the uncertain boundary is limited in a narrow zone. Temporal scaling of head exists in most part of a low permeable aquifer mainly caused by recharge fluctuation.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1-23, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1-2015, 2015
Complex networks, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 13663-13710, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-13663-2014, 2014
Analysis of frequency and duration of the functional periods on the basis of long-term variability of limnetic processes within the Bug River valley
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 13145-13174, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-13145-2014, 2014
Investigation of seasonal river–aquifer interactions in a tropical coastal area controlled by tidal sand ridges
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 9759-9790, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-9759-2014, 2014
The effective porosity and grain size relations in permeability functions
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 6675-6714, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-6675-2014, 2014