A 2600 year history of floods in the Bernese Alps, Switzerland: frequencies, mechanisms and climate forcing
Summary: A 2600-yr long composite palaeoflood record is reconstructed from high-resolution delta plain sediments of the Hasli-Aare floodplain on the northern slope of the Swiss Alps. Natural proxies compiled from sedimentary, geochemical and geomorphological data were calibrated by textual and factual sources and instrumental data. Geomorphological, historical and instrumental data provide evidence for flood damage intensities and discharge estimations of severe and catastrophic historical floods.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3391-3448, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3391-2015, 2015
Phosphorus dynamics in lowland streams as a response to climatic, hydrological and agricultural land use gradients
Summary: We evaluated the effects of agricultural intensification (AI) on the concentrations and export of phosphorus (P) in four streams under contrasting climate (C: temperate and subtropical) and hydrological (H: stable and flashy) regimes, while comparing different estimation methods. The impact of AI differed between the contrasting C-H regimes. The observed patterns seem to reflect effects of different environmental regulations of agriculture, currently being more important than other factors.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3349-3390, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3349-2015, 2015
Moving sociohydrology forward: a synthesis across studies
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3319-3348, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3319-2015, 2015
Sources of uncertainty in rainfall maps from cellular communication networks
Summary: Commercial cellular networks are built for telecommunication purposes. These kind of networks have lately been used to obtain rainfall maps at country-wide scales. Based on a previous study, we now quantify the uncertaintes associated to such maps. To do so, we divided the sources or error into two categories: from microwave link measurements, and from mapping. It was found that the former is the source that contributes the most to the overall error in rainfall maps from microwave link networks.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3289-3317, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3289-2015, 2015
Flood triggering in Switzerland: the role of daily to monthly preceding precipitation
Summary: We investigate precipitation characteristics prior to 4000 annual floods in Switzerland since 1961. The floods were preceded by heavy precipitation, but in most catchments extreme precipitation occurred only during the last 3 days prior to the flood events. Precipitation sums for earlier time periods (like e.g. 4-14 days prior to floods) were mostly average and do not correlate with the return period of the floods.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3245-3288, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3245-2015, 2015
Soil moisture–precipitation coupling: observations from the Oklahoma Mesonet and underlying physical mechanisms
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3205-3243, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3205-2015, 2015
Operational aspects of asynchronous filtering for hydrological forecasting
Summary: This is the first analysis of the Asynchronous Ensemble Kalman Filter in hydrological forecasting. The results of discharge assimilation into a hydrological model for the Ourthe catchment show that including past predictions and observations in the filter improves model forecasts. Additionally, we show that elimination of the strongly non-linear relation between soil moisture and assimilated discharge observations from the model update becomes beneficial for improved operational forecasting.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3169-3203, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3169-2015, 2015
Aggregation in environmental systems: catchment mean transit times and young water fractions under hydrologic nonstationarity
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3105-3167, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3105-2015, 2015
Aggregation in environmental systems: seasonal tracer cycles quantify young water fractions, but not mean transit times, in spatially heterogeneous catchments
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3059-3103, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3059-2015, 2015
Qualitative soil moisture assessment in semi-arid Africa: the role of experience and training on inter-rater reliability
Summary: A field method for assessing soil moisture in semi-arid conditions is proposed and tested in terms of interrater reliability with 40 Tanzanian farmers, students and experts. The seven wetness classes are based on qualitative indicators that one can see, feel or hear. It could be shown that the qualitative wetness classes reflect differences in volumetric water content and neither experience, nor a certain level of education was a prerequisite to gain high agreement among raters.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3029-3058, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3029-2015, 2015
The representation of location by regional climate models in complex terrain
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 3011-3028, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-3011-2015, 2015
On the spatial organization of the ridge slough patterned landscape
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2975-3010, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2975-2015, 2015
Use of satellite and modelled soil moisture data for predicting event soil loss at plot scale
Summary: We developed a new formulation of USLE, named Soil Moisture for Erosion (SM4E), that directly incorporates soil moisture information. SM4E is applied here by using modelled data and satellite observations obtained from the Advanced SCATterometer (ASCAT). SM4E is found to outperform USLE and USLE-MM models in a silty-clay soil in Central Italy. Through satellite data, there is the potential of applying SM4E for large-scale monitoring and quantification of the soil erosion process.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2945-2973, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2945-2015, 2015
Large-scale hydrological modelling by using modified PUB recommendations: the India-HYPE case
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2885-2944, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2885-2015, 2015
Turbidity in the fluvial Gironde Estuary (S–W France) based on 10 year continuous monitoring: sensitivity to hydrological conditions
Summary: This study aims to analyse for the first time suspended sediment dynamics in the fluvial Gironde through a unique set of a 10-years continuous turbidity record. We demonstrate: the interest of turbidity-discharge hysteresis loops to evaluate the presence of sediment depositions; the relationships between features of the turbidity maximum zone (TMZ) and river flow; and the definition of hydrological indicators of the persistence and concentration of the TMZ.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2843-2883, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2843-2015, 2015
Accelerated gravity testing of aquitard core permeability and implications at formation and regional scale
Summary: Low permeability sediments and rock can leak slowly, yet can act as important barriers to flow for resource development and for waste sequestration. Relatively rapid and reliable hydraulic tests of ‘tight’ geological materials are possible by accelerating gravity. Results from geotechnical centrifuge testing of drill core and in situ pore pressure monitoring were compared with a regional flow model, and considered in the context of inherent geological variability at site and formation scale.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2799-2841, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2799-2015, 2015
Nonstationarity of low flows and their timing in the eastern United States
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2761-2798, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2761-2015, 2015
Technical Note: Approximate solution of transient drawdown for constant-flux pumping at a partially penetrating well in a radial two-zone confined aquifer
Summary: Existing solutions for the problem of constant-flux pumping (CFP) in a two-zone confined aquifer involve laborious calculation. This study develops a new approximate solution for the problem. The solution is in terms of a simple series expanded by integers and thus very convenient for those who are not familiar with numerical methods. A quantitative criterion for the validity of neglecting the vertical flow component due to a partially penetrating well is provided.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2741-2760, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2741-2015, 2015
Identifying the controls of soil loss in agricultural catchments using ex situ turbidity-based suspended sediment monitoring
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2707-2740, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2707-2015, 2015
Impacts of climate change on temperature, precipitation and hydrology in Finland – studies using bias corrected Regional Climate Model data
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2657-2706, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2657-2015, 2015
Uniform flow formulas for irregular sections
Summary: We present two new methods for uniform flow computation, named LHRM and INCM Calibration and 1st validation from laboratory experimental data 2nd validation by field discharge hydrographs estimated by measured water level data 3rd validation from 3D solution of CFX code applied to a reach of the Alzette river
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2607-2655, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2607-2015, 2015
Downscaling future precipitation extremes to urban hydrology scales using a spatio-temporal Neyman–Scott weather generator
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2561-2605, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2561-2015, 2015
Characterization of precipitation product errors across the US using multiplicative Triple Collocation
Summary: This paper introduces a new variant of the Triple Collocation technique with multiplicative error model. The method is applied, for the first time, to precipitation products across the central part of Continental US. Results show distinctive patterns of error variance in each product that are estimated without assuming any distribution for the errors a priori. The correlation coefficients between each product and the truth is also estimated which provides another performance perspective.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2527-2559, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2527-2015, 2015
Simulating the regional water balance through hydrological model based on TRMM satellite rainfall data
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2497-2525, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2497-2015, 2015
Technical Note: Variability of flow discharge in lateral inflow-dominated stream channels
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2477-2495, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2477-2015, 2015
Vulnerability of groundwater resources to interaction with river water in a boreal catchment
Summary: Based on low altitude aerial infrared survey, around 370 groundwater–surface water interaction sites were located. Longitudinal temperature patterns, stable isotopes and dissolved silica composition of the studied rivers differed. Interaction sites identified in the proximity of 12 municipal water plants during low-flow seasons should be considered as potential risk areas during flood periods, and should be taken under consideration in river basin management under changing climatic situations.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2435-2476, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2435-2015, 2015
Hydrological connectivity as indicated by transport of diatoms through the riparian–stream system
Summary: We tested the hypothesis that different diatom species assemblages inhabit specific moisture domains of the catchment and, consequently, the presence of certain species assemblages in the stream during runoff events inform about hydrological connectivity between these domains. Diatom identification in the different domains suggested rapid connectivity between the soil surface and the stream during events. Results were compared to two-component hydrograph separation and end-member mixing analysis
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2391-2434, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2391-2015, 2015
Investigating temporal field sampling strategies for site-specific calibration of three soil moisture – neutron intensity parameterisation methods
Summary: The Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor can provide soil moisture content averages over areas of roughly half a kilometre by half a kilometre. Although this sensor is usually calibrated using soil samples taken on a single day, we found multiple sampling days are needed. The calibration results were also affected by the soil wetness conditions of the sampling days. The outcome of this study will help researchers to calibrate/validate new Cosmic-Ray Neutron Sensor sites more accurately.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2349-2389, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2349-2015, 2015
Large-basin hydrological response to climate model outputs: uncertainty caused by the internal atmospheric variability
Summary: Our paper is one of very few studies where influence of the stochastic internal atmospheric variability (IAV) on the hydrological response is analyzed. On the basis of the ensemble experiments with GCM and hydrological models, we found, e.g., that averaging over ensemble members filters stochastic term related to IAV, and that a considerable portion of the simulated trend in the annual Lena R. runoff can be explained by the externally forced signal (global SST and SIC changes in our experiments)
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2305-2348, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2305-2015, 2015
Data assimilation in integrated hydrological modeling using ensemble Kalman filtering: evaluating the effect of ensemble size and localization on filter performance
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2267-2304, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2267-2015, 2015
Spatially shifting temporal points: estimating pooled within-time series variograms for scarce hydrological data
Summary: We developed an alternative method (SSTP) for estimating pooled variograms for geostatistical interpolation of spatially scarce hydrological data. The method relies on the availability of time series and spatializes temporal data by shifting them. We applied SSTP for geostatistical interpolation of a precipitation series in a spatial data-scarce region. SSTP outperforms the available method (AEV) for estimating pooled variograms. We provide an example R script with test data for reproducibility.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2243-2265, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2243-2015, 2015
Isolating the impacts of land use and climate change on streamflow
Summary: A simple hydrologic modelling based approach to segregate the impacts of land use (LU) and climate change on streamflow is presented. Upper part of Ganga river basin in India is selected as study area for investigation. Results suggest that climate is the dominant contributor to the changes observed in the simulated streamflow. LU did not contribute significantly to the simulated streamflow which could be attributed to smaller spatial extent of sensitive LU categories in the study region.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2201-2242, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2201-2015, 2015
Inverse modelling of in situ soil water dynamics: accounting for heteroscedastic, autocorrelated, and non-Gaussian distributed residuals
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2155-2199, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2155-2015, 2015
Comparing CFSR and conventional weather data for discharge and sediment loss modelling with SWAT in small catchments in the Ethiopian Highlands
Summary: When using the Soil and Water Assessment Tool (SWAT) for watershed modelling the main input parameters are climate data. The SWAT website suggests using input data from Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). We compared CFSR data to measured data and suggest that CFSR data cannot be used unconditionally as it tends to strongly overestimate unimodal rainfall patterns and to underestimate bimodal rainfall patterns. The results allow for specific recommendations concerning rainfall data usage.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2113-2153, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2113-2015, 2015
Comparing TRMM 3B42, CFSR and ground-based rainfall estimates as input for hydrological models, in data scarce regions: the Upper Blue Nile Basin, Ethiopia
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2081-2112, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2081-2015, 2015
Quantification of the Beauce's Groundwater contribution to the Loire River discharge using satellite infrared imagery
Summary: This work shows that satellite thermal infrared images (LANDSAT) can be used to locate and quantify groundwater discharge into a large river (Loire River, FRANCE - 100 m to 300 m wide). Groundwater discharge rate is found to be highly variable with time and space and maximum during flow recession periods and in winter. The main identified groundwater discharge area into the Loire River corresponds to a known discharge area of the Beauce aquifer .
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2047-2080, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2047-2015, 2015
Integration of 2-D hydraulic model and high-resolution LiDAR-derived DEM for floodplain flow modeling
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 2011-2046, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-2011-2015, 2015
Early warning of drought in Europe using the monthly ensemble system from ECMWF
Summary: This paper assesses the predictability of meteorological droughts over Europe one month in advance using Ensemble Prediction Systems. It has been shown that, in average and using the most relevant method, 40 % of droughts in Europe are correctly forecasted, with less than 25 % of false alarms. This study is a reference for others studies that are motivated to improve the drought forecasting.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1973-2009, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1973-2015, 2015
Urbanization dramatically altered the water balances of a paddy field dominated basin in Southern China
Summary: The role of evapotranspiration in regulating watershed hydrologic changes is underestimated and the mechanisms linking hydrologic changes to urban heat island (UHI) effects in the humid region are unclear. Highlights: a) highflows and lowflows increased and evapotranspiration decreased due to urbanization; b) Urbanization masked climate effects in a rice paddy dominated watershed in altering long term hydrology; c) Flooding risks and heat island effects expected to rise due to urbanization.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1941-1972, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1941-2015, 2015
Evaporation in a Mediterranean environment by energy budget and Penman methods, Lake Baratz, Sardinia, Italy
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1901-1940, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1901-2015, 2015
Singularity-sensitive gauge-based radar rainfall adjustment methods for urban hydrological applications
Summary: A new methodology is proposed in this paper, focusing on improving the applicability of the operational weather radar data to urban hydrology with rain gauge data. The proposed methodology employed a simple yet effective technique to extract additional information (called local singularity structure) from radar data, which was generally ignored in related works. The associated improvement can be particularly seen in capturing storm peak magnitudes, which is critical for urban applications.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1855-1900, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1855-2015, 2015
Exploring water cycle dynamics through sampling multitude stable water isotope pools in a small developed landscape of Germany
Summary: The two-year weekly to biweekly measurements of δ2H and δ18O in precipitation, stream, soil, and groundwater revealed that surface and groundwater were closely linked but decoupled from the annual rainfall cycle in the Schwingbach catchment. Snowmelt played a fundamental role for groundwater recharge and groundwater predominately controls streamflow. Soil isotopic signatures were affected by land use and seasonality, but approached mean groundwater δ-values with increasing depth.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1809-1853, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1809-2015, 2015
5 year radar-based rainfall statistics: disturbances analysis and development of a post-correction scheme for the German radar composite
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1765-1808, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1765-2015, 2015
Temporal parameter sensitivity guided verification of process dynamics
Summary: To ensure reliable model results, hydrological processes have to be represented adequately in the model structure. We present a framework that uses temporal dynamics of parameter sensitivity to verify the coincidence between modelled and expected hydrological processes in the catchment. The framework is exemplarily applied on a modified groundwater model component. The results show that the behaviour of the groundwater parameters is consistent with the idea behind the structural modifications.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1729-1764, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1729-2015, 2015
Flood and drought hydrologic monitoring: the role of model parameter uncertainty
Summary: Land surface modeling is playing an increasing role in global monitoring and prediction of extreme hydrologic events. However, uncertainties in parameter identifiability limit the reliability of model predictions. This study makes use of petascale computing to perform a comprehensive evaluation of land surface modeling for global flood and drought monitoring and suggests paths forward to overcome the challenges posed by parameter uncertainty.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1697-1728, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1697-2015, 2015
Spatially-distributed influence of agro-environmental factors governing nitrate fate and transport in an irrigated stream-aquifer system
Summary: Nitrate contamination in agricultural groundwater systems is a concern in many regions worldwide. In this study, a model is applied to a regional-scale irrigated stream-aquifer system to identify the system inputs and processes that govern nitrate fate and transport at multiple scales: for the entire study region, for spatial areas irrigated by individual canals, and for individual cultivated fields. Results can be used to guide the localized application of best management practices.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1653-1696, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1653-2015, 2015
Historical changes in frequency and seasonality of extreme floods in Prague
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1633-1652, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1633-2015, 2015
Groundwater flow processes and mixing in active volcanic systems: the case of Guadalajara (Mexico)
Summary: A conceptual model of groundwater flow processes and mixing was developed using a combination of hydrogeochemistry, isotopes and multivariate analysis. The implementation to the case of Guadalajara showed that groundwater was classified into four groups: cold groundwater, hydrothermal water, polluted groundwater and mixed groundwater. The multivariate mixing model (M3) was used to calculate the proportion of different fluids in sampled well water. The result helps authorities in decision making.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1599-1631, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1599-2015, 2015
An automated method to build groundwater model hydrostratigraphy from airborne electromagnetic data and lithological borehole logs
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1555-1598, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1555-2015, 2015
A 2-D process-based model for suspended sediment dynamics: a first step towards ecological modeling
Summary: • A 2-D process-based model reproduces measured suspended sediment concentration in a complex estuarine environment. • Model results cover range from tidal to seasonal variations in sediment dynamics. • Model produces yearly sediment budget and spatial deposition patterns. • Translating SSC into turbidity allows ecologists to profit from model results of sediment dynamics. • Sediment budget modeling can be done applying single sediment fraction and little information of bottom composition
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1507-1553, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1507-2015, 2015
Projected changes in US erosivity
Summary: We estimate future changes in US erosivity from the most recent ensemble projections of daily and monthly rainfall accumulation. The expectation of overall increase in erosivity is confirmed by these calculations, but a quantitative assessment is marred by large uncertainties. Specifically, the uncertainty in the method of estimation of erosivity is more consequential than that deriving from the spread in climate simulations, and leads to changes of uncertain sign in parts of the South.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1469-1506, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1469-2015, 2015
Assessment of Halon-1301 as a groundwater age tracer
Summary: We assess the potential of Halon-1301 as a new groundwater age tracer, which had not been assessed in detail. We determine Halon-1301 and infer age in 17 New Zealand groundwater and various modern waters. Halon-1301 reliably inferred age in 71% of the sites within +/- 2 years of the ages inferred from tritium and SF6. The remaining (anoxic) waters show reduced concentrations of Halon-1301 along with even further reduced concentrations of CFCs. The reason(s) for this need to be further assessed.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1397-1436, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1397-2015, 2015
Using high frequency water quality data to assess sampling strategies for the EU Water Framework Directive
Summary: The EU Water Framework Directive requires rivers to be of good chemical and ecological quality. Chemical quality is assessed by sampling and analysing the water. Normal sampling regimes might involve taking a sample monthly or weekly. This paper uses high frequency data from rivers to assess how accurate these regimes are at assessing the true chemical quality. Weekly sampling was more accurate than monthly, but there were still large uncertainties. We suggest ways to improve sampling accuracy.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1279-1309, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1279-2015, 2015
High-quality observation of surface imperviousness for urban runoff modelling using UAV imagery
Summary: We investigate for the first time the possibility to derive high-resolution imperviousness maps for urban areas from UAV imagery and to use this information as input for urban drainage models. We show that imperviousness maps generated using UAV imagery processed with modern classification methods achieve accuracy comparable with standard, off-the-shelf aerial imagery. We conclude that UAV imagery represents a valuable alternative data source for urban drainage model applications.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1205-1245, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1205-2015, 2015
Evolution of hydrological sciences from dimensions of object, discipline and methodology
Summary: The evolution routes and development stages in hydrological sciences are summarised from the following three dimensions: research object, discipline and methodology, by means of the descriptive-explanatory-humanistic ideology. The 3-dimensional diagram of evolution routes of hydrological sciences may provide some ideas for Panta Rhei, the new IAHS Science Initiative 2013-2022 for hydrological research under changing human and environmental systems in the real world.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1189-1203, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1189-2015, 2015
Definition of efficient scarcity-based water pricing policies through stochastic programming
Summary: One of the most promising alternatives to improve the efficiency in water usage is the implementation of scarcity-based pricing policies, based on the opportunity cost of water at the basin scale. Time series of the marginal value of water at selected locations (reservoirs) are obtained using a stochastic hydro-economic model and then post-processed to define step water pricing policies.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 771-799, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-771-2015, 2015
Revised predictive equations for salt intrusion modelling in estuaries
Summary: We revised the predictive equations for two calibrated parameters in salt intrusion model (the Van der Burgh coefficient K and dispersion coefficient D) using an extended database of 89 salinity profiles including 8 newly conducted salinity measurements. The revised predictive equations consist of easily measured parameters such as the geometry of estuary, tide, friction and the Richardson Number. These equations are useful in obtaining the first estimate of salinity distribution in an estuary.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 739-770, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-739-2015, 2015
Inter-annual variability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen in the Biobío River, Central Chile: an analysis base on a decadal database along with 1-D reactive transport modeling
Summary: This study examines the inter-annual variability of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN) seasonal cycle for the Biobío River in Central Chile. Historical water flow and water quality datasets were used along with a one-dimensional reactive transport ecosystem model to evaluate the effects of water flow and N inputs on seasonal pattern of DIN. Results showed that high DIN production occurred during wet years, whereas high consumption proceeded during dry years. Nitrification was identified as one o
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 705-738, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-705-2015, 2015
Precipitation in the Amazon and its relationship with moisture transport and tropical Pacific and Atlantic SST from the CMIP5 simulation
Summary: Studies on numerical modeling in Amazonia show that the models fail to capture important aspects of climate variability in this region and it is important to understand the reasons that cause this drawback. We study how the general circulation models of the CMIP5 simulate the inter-relations between regional precipitation, moisture convergence and SST in the adjacent oceans, to assess how flaws in the representation of these processes can translate into biases in simulated rainfall in Amazonia.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 671-704, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-671-2015, 2015
High-resolution estimation of the water balance components from high-precision lysimeters
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 569-608, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-569-2015, 2015
Water vapor mapping by fusing InSAR and GNSS remote sensing data and atmospheric simulations
Summary: This work aims at deriving high spatially-resolved maps of atmospheric water vapor by the fusion data from Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (InSAR), Global Navigation Satellite Systems (GNSS), and the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model. The data fusion approach exploits the redundant as well as complementary spatial properties of all data sets to provide more accurate and high-resolution maps of water vapor. The comparison with maps from MERIS shows RMS values of less than 1 mm
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 363-404, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-363-2015, 2015
Evaluation of precipitation extremes and floods and comparison between their temporal distributions
Summary: We proposed three analogous indices that enable to evaluate and to compare the extremity of precipitation events and floods. Precipitation extremes are considered both regardless and regarding of the season. We present sets of extremes from the period of 1961–2010 in the Czech Republic and demonstrate the fact that the temporal distributions of them are not identical. It shows that not only changes in precipitation extremity but also in their seasonality could produce changes in flood extremity.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 281-310, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-281-2015, 2015
Analyses of uncertainties and scaling of groundwater level fluctuations
Summary: The error or uncertainty in head, obtained with an analytical or numerical solution, in early time is mainly caused by the random initial condition and the error reduces as time goes to reach a constant error in later time. The constant error in later time is mainly due to the effects of the uncertain source/sink. The error caused by the uncertain boundary is limited in a narrow zone. Temporal scaling of head exists in most part of a low permeable aquifer mainly caused by recharge fluctuation.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 12, 1-23, doi:10.5194/hessd-12-1-2015, 2015
Complex networks, streamflow, and hydrometric monitoring system design
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 13663-13710, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-13663-2014, 2014
Analysis of frequency and duration of the functional periods on the basis of long-term variability of limnetic processes within the Bug River valley
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 13145-13174, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-13145-2014, 2014
Is sinuosity a function of slope and bankfull discharge? – A case study of the meandering rivers in the Pannonian Basin
Summary: We described how the sinuosity of the meandering rivers influenced by the channel-slope and the bankfull-discharge. We defined an approximated mathematical function (least squares regression), and analysed the existence of this connection in the Pannonian Basin. The differences believed to be the effect of the non-analysed changes in the sediment discharge.
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 12271-12290, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-12271-2014, 2014
Investigation of seasonal river–aquifer interactions in a tropical coastal area controlled by tidal sand ridges
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 9759-9790, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-9759-2014, 2014
The effective porosity and grain size relations in permeability functions
Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., 11, 6675-6714, doi:10.5194/hessd-11-6675-2014, 2014