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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-10-14617-2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/hessd-10-14617-2013
© Author(s) 2013. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Research article 03 Dec 2013

Research article | 03 Dec 2013

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It has been under review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS). The manuscript was not accepted for further review after discussion.

Trends and future challenges of water resources in the Tigris–Euphrates Rivers basin in Iraq

I. E. Issa1,2, N. A. Al-Ansari1, G. Sherwany3, and S. Knutsson1 I. E. Issa et al.
  • 1Department of Civil, Environmental and Natural Resources Engineering, Luleå University of Technology, Lulea, Sweden
  • 2University of Mosul, Mosul, Iraq
  • 3Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research – KRG, Erbil, Iraq

Abstract. Iraq is one of the riparian countries within basins of Tigris–Euphrates Rivers in the Middle East region. The region is currently facing water shortage problems due to the increase of the demand and climate changes. In the present study, average monthly water flow measurements for 15 stream flow gaging stations within basins of these rivers in Iraq with population growth rate data in some of its part were used to evaluate the reality of the current situation and future challenges of water availability and demand in Iraq. The results showed that Iraq receives annually 70.29 km3 of water 45.4 and 25.52 km3 from River Tigris and Euphrates respectively. An amount of 18.04 km3 is supplied by its tributaries inside Iraq. The whole amount of water in the Euphrates Rivers comes outside the Iraqi borders. Annual decrease of the water inflow is 0.1335 km3 yr−1 for Tigris and 0.245 km3 yr−1 for Euphrates. This implies the annual percentage reduction of inflow rates for the two rivers is 0.294 and 0.960% respectively. Iraq consumes annually 88.89% (63.05 km3) of incoming water from the two rivers, where about 60.43 and 39.57% are from Rivers Tigris and Euphrates respectively. Water demand increases annually by 0.896 km3; of which 0.5271 and 0.475 km3 within Tigris and Euphrates basins respectively. The average water demand in 2020 will increase to 42.844 km3 yr−1 for Tigris basin and for Euphrates 29.225 km3 yr−1 (total 72.069 km3 yr−1), while water availability will decrease to 63.46 km3 yr−1. This means that the overall water shortage will be restricted to 8.61 km3.

I. E. Issa et al.
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I. E. Issa et al.
I. E. Issa et al.
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