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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2017-378
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Research article
24 Jul 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of this manuscript was accepted for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) and is expected to appear here in due course.
The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra River basins
Rogert Sorí1, Raquel Nieto1,2, Anita Drumond1, Sergio M. Vicente-Serrano3, and Luis Gimeno1 1Environmental Physics Laboratory (EphysLab), Universidade de Vigo, Ourense, 32004, Spain
2Department of Atmospheric Sciences, Institute of Astronomy, Geophysics and Atmospheric Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, 05508-090, Brazil
3Instituto Pirenaico de Ecología, Consejo Superior de Investigaciones Cient íficas (IPE-CSIC), Zaragoza, 50059, Spain
Abstract. The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges, and Brahmaputra river basins in the South Asian region was investigated. The 3-dimensional model FLEXPART v9.0 was utilized. An important advantage of this model is that it permits the computation of the freshwater budget on air parcels both backward and forward in time trajectories from 0.1 and 1000 hPa in the atmospheric vertical column. The analysis was conducted for the Westerly Precipitation Regime (WPR) (November–April) and the Monsoonal Precipitation Regime (MPR) (May–October) in the period from 1981–2015. The main terrestrial and oceanic climatological moisture sources for the IRB, GRB and BRB and their contribution to precipitation over the basins were identified. For the three basins, the most important moisture sources for precipitation are (i) on the continental regions, the land masses to the west of the basins (in this case called West Asia), the Indian region (IR) and the basin itself, and (ii) from the ocean, the utmost sources are the Indian Ocean (IO) and the Bay of Bengal (BB), and it is remarkable that despite the amount of moisture reaching the IRB and GRB from land sources, the moisture supply from the IO seems to be first associated with the rapid increase/decrease in precipitation over the sources in the MPR. The technique of the composites was used to analyse how the moisture uptake spatially vary from the sources (the budget of evaporation minus precipitation (E − P) was computed in a backward experiment from the basins) but during the preonset and predemise dates of the monsoonal rainfall over each basin; this confirmed that over the last days of the monsoon at the basins, the moisture uptake areas decrease in the IO. The Indian region, the Indian Ocean and the basins itself are the main sources of moisture responsible for negative (positive) anomalies of moisture contribution to the basins during composites of driest (wettest) WPR and MPR.

Citation: Sorí, R., Nieto, R., Drumond, A., Vicente-Serrano, S. M., and Gimeno, L.: The atmospheric branch of the hydrological cycle over the Indus, Ganges and Brahmaputra River basins, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss., https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2017-378, in review, 2017.
Rogert Sorí et al.
Interactive discussionStatus: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
Printer-friendly Version - Printer-friendly version      Supplement - Supplement
 
RC1: 'Review', Anonymous Referee #1, 15 Aug 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
AC1: 'Reply_1', Rogert Sorí Gómez, 28 Aug 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
 
RC2: 'Review', Anonymous Referee #2, 16 Aug 2017 Printer-friendly Version 
AC2: 'Reply_2', Rogert Sorí Gómez, 28 Aug 2017 Printer-friendly Version Supplement 
Rogert Sorí et al.
Rogert Sorí et al.

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