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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
© Author(s) 2017. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
Technical note
04 Aug 2017
Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS).
Technical note: using Distributed Temperature Sensing for Bowen ratio evaporation measurements
Bart Schilperoort1, Miriam Coenders-Gerrits1, Willem Luxemburg1, César Jiménez Rodríguez1,3, César Cisneros Vaca2, and Hubert Savenije1 1Delft University of Technology, Water Resources Section, Stevinweg 1, 2628 CN Delft, the Netherlands
2University of Twente, Faculty of Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation (ITC), Hengelosestraat 99, 7514 AE, Enschede, the Netherlands
3Tecnológico de Costa Rica, Escuela de Ingeniería Forestal. 159-7050, Cartago, Costa Rica
Abstract. Rapid improvements in the precision and spatial resolution of Distributed Temperature Sensing (DTS) technology now allows its use in hydrological and atmospheric sciences. Introduced by Euser [Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 18, 2021–2032 (2014)] is the use of DTS for measuring the Bowen ratio (BR-DTS), to estimate the sensible and latent heat flux. The Bowen ratio is derived from DTS measured vertical profiles of the air temperature and wet-bulb temperature. However, in previous research the measured temperatures were not validated, and the cables were not shielded from solar radiation. Additionally, the BR-DTS method has not been tested above a forest before, where temperature gradients are small and energy storage in the air column becomes important.

In this paper the accuracy of the wet-bulb and air temperature measurements of the DTS are verified, and the resulting Bowen ratio and heat fluxes are compared to eddy covariance data. The performance of BR-DTS was tested on a 46 m high tower in a mixed forest in the centre of the Netherlands in August 2016. The average tree height is 26 to 30 m, and the temperatures are measured below, in, and above the canopy. Using the vertical temperature profiles the storage of latent and sensible heat in the air column was calculated.

We found a significant effect of solar radiation on the temperature measurements, leading to a deviation of up to 3 K. By installing screens, the error caused by sunlight is reduced to under 1 K. Wind speed seems to have a minimal effect on the measured wet-bulb temperature, both below and above the canopy. After a simple quality control, the Bowen ratio measured by DTS correlates well with eddy covariance (EC) estimates (r2 = 0.59). The average energy balance closure between BR-DTS and EC is good, with a mean underestimation of 3.4 W m−2 by the BR-DTS method. However, during daytime the BR-DTS method overestimates the available energy, and during night-time the BR-DTS method estimates the available energy to be more negative. This difference could be related to the biomass heat storage, which is neglected in this study.

The BR-DTS method overestimates the latent heat flux on average by 18.7 W m−2, with RMSE = 90 W m−2. The sensible heat flux is underestimated on average by 10.6 W m−2, with RMSE = 76 W m−2. Estimates of the BR-DTS can be improved once the uncertainties in the energy balance are reduced. However, applying e.g. Monin-Obukhov similarity theory could provide independent estimates for the sensible heat flux. This would make the determination of the highly uncertain and difficult to determine net available energy redundant.

Citation: Schilperoort, B., Coenders-Gerrits, M., Luxemburg, W., Jiménez Rodríguez, C., Cisneros Vaca, C., and Savenije, H.: Technical note: using Distributed Temperature Sensing for Bowen ratio evaporation measurements, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. Discuss.,, in review, 2017.
Bart Schilperoort et al.
Bart Schilperoort et al.

Data sets

Speulderbos flux, storage, and temperature profile measurements
B. Schilperoort, C. C. Vaca, and C. J. Rodríguez
Bart Schilperoort et al.


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Short summary
Using the DTS technology, we measured the evaporation of a forest using fiber optic cables. The cables work like long thermometers, with a measurement every 12.5 cm. We placed the cables vertically along the tower, one cable being dry, the other kept wet. By looking at the dry and wet cable temperatures over the height we are able to study heat storage, and the amount of water the forest is evaporating. These results can be used to better understand the storage and heat exchange of forests.
Using the DTS technology, we measured the evaporation of a forest using fiber optic cables. The...