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Hydrology and Earth System Sciences An interactive open-access journal of the European Geosciences Union
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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-127
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2018-127
© Author(s) 2018. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Review article 28 Mar 2018

Review article | 28 Mar 2018

Review status
This discussion paper is a preprint. A revision of this manuscript was accepted for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) and is expected to appear here in due course.

Modeling Lake Titicaca Daily and Monthly Evaporation

Ramiro Pillco Zolá1, Lars Bengtsson2, Ronny Berndtsson2, Belen Martí-Cardona3, Frederic Satgé4, Franck Timouk5, Marie-Paule Bonnet6, Luis Mollericon1, Cesar Gamarra7, and José Pasapera7 Ramiro Pillco Zolá et al.
  • 1Instituto de Hidráulica e Hidrología, Universidad Mayor de San Andrés, La Paz, Bolivia
  • 2Division of Water Resources Engineering and Center for Middle Eastern Studies, Lund University, Lund, Sweden
  • 3Department of Civil and Environmental Eng., University of Surrey, Guildford, UK
  • 4CNES, UMR HydroSciences, Univeristy of Montpellier, Place E. Bataillon, 34395 Montpellier Cedex 5, France
  • 5IRD, UMR5563; Obs. Midi-Pyrénées, Université P. Sabatier, Toulouse, France
  • 6IRD, UMR Espace-Dev, Maison de la télédétection, 500 rue JF Breton, 34093 Montpellier cedex 5, France
  • 7IMARPE, Puno, Perú

Abstract. Lake Titicaca is an important water ecosystem of South America. Due to uncertainties in estimating the evaporation losses from the lake, surface water storage calculations are uncertain. In this paper, we try to improve evaporation loss estimations by comparing different methods to calculate daily and monthly evaporation from Lake Titicaca. These were: water balance, heat balance, mass transfer method, and the Penman equation. The evaporation was computed at daily time step and compared with estimated evaporation using mean monthly meteorological observations. We found that the most reliable method of determining the annual lake evaporation is using the heat balance approach. To estimate the monthly lake evaporation using heat balance, the heat storage changes must be known in advance. Since convection from the surface layer is intense during nights resulting in a well-mixed top layer every morning, it is possible to determine the change of heat storage from the measured morning surface temperature. The mean annual lake evaporation was found to be 1700mm. Monthly evaporation computed using daily data and monthly means resulted in minor differences.

Ramiro Pillco Zolá et al.
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Status: closed
Status: closed
AC: Author comment | RC: Referee comment | SC: Short comment | EC: Editor comment
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Ramiro Pillco Zolá et al.
Ramiro Pillco Zolá et al.
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The evaporation was computed at daily time step and compared with estimated evaporation using mean monthly meteorological observations. We found that the most reliable method of determining the annual lake evaporation is using the heat balance approach.
The evaporation was computed at daily time step and compared with estimated evaporation using...
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