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Discussion papers
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-532
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.
https://doi.org/10.5194/hess-2019-532
© Author(s) 2019. This work is distributed under
the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 License.

Submitted as: research article 15 Oct 2019

Submitted as: research article | 15 Oct 2019

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This discussion paper is a preprint. It is a manuscript under review for the journal Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS).

Evapotranspiration partition using the multiple energy balance version of the ISBA-A-gs land surface model over two irrigated crops in a semi-arid Mediterranean region (Marrakech, Morocco)

Ghizlane Aouade1, Lionel Jarlan2, Jamal Ezzahar3,4, Salah Er-raki5,4, Adrien Napoly6, Abdelfattah Benkaddour1, Said Khabba7,4, Gilles Boulet2, Sébastien Garrigues8,9, Abdelghani Chehbouni2,4, and Aaron Boone6 Ghizlane Aouade et al.
  • 1Laboratoire des Géo-ressources/LMI TREMA, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Maroc
  • 2Centre d'Etudes Spatiales de la Biosphère (CESBIO)/IRD, Toulouse, France
  • 3Equipe de Mathématiques et traitement de l'information (MTI), Ecole Nationale des Sciences Appliquées, Université Cadi Ayyad, Safi, Maroc
  • 4CRSA, Center of Remote Sensing Application, Mohammed VI Polytechnic University UM6P, Benguerir, Moroc
  • 5LP2M2E, Faculté des Sciences et Techniques, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech
  • 6Centre National de Recherches Météorologiques (CNRM), Météo-France/CNRS, Toulouse, France
  • 7LMME, Département de physique, Faculté des Sciences Semlalia, Université Cadi Ayyad, Marrakech, Maroc
  • 8EMMAH, INRA, Université d'Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, Avignon, France
  • 9Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (CEH), Wallingford, UK

Abstract. The main objective of this work is to question the representation of the energy budget in surface–vegetation–atmosphere transfer (SVAT) models for the prediction of the convective fluxes in the case of irrigated crops with a complex structure (row) and under strong transient hydric regimes due to irrigation. To this objective, the Interaction Soil–Biosphere–Atmosphere (ISBA-A-gs) based on a composite energy budget (named hereafter ISBA-1P for 1 patch) is compared to the new multiple energy balance (MEB) version of ISBA using two representations of the canopy energy budget: a coupled approach (ISBA-MEB) where the vegetation layer is located above the soil and a patch representation corresponding to two-adjacent uncoupled source schemes (ISBA-2P for 2 patches). The evaluation is performed over a winter wheat field, taken as an example of homogeneous canopy and on a more complex open olive orchard. Continuous observations of evapotranspiration (ET) with Eddy covariance system, soil evaporation (E) and plant transpiration (Tr) with Sapflow and isotopic methods were used to evaluate the three representations. A preliminary sensitivity analyses showed a strong sensitivity to the parameters related to turbulence in the canopy introduced in the new ISBA-MEB version. The ability of the single and dual-source configuration to reproduce the composite soil-vegetation heat fluxes was very similar: the RMSE differences between ISBA-1P, -2P and -MEB did not exceed 10 W/m2 for the latent heat flux. These results showed that a composite energy balance on homogeneous covers is sufficient to reproduce the total convective fluxes. By contrast, differences were highlighted on the partition of ET. In particular, the ISBA-2P version showed an over-estimation of soil evaporation of about 20 % because of a direct exposition to incoming solar radiation and because there is no root extraction for the bare soil patch with regards to –MEB and -1P representations. By contrast, the dual source configurations including both the uncoupled (ISBA-2P) and the coupled (ISBA-MEB) representations outperformed the single source version (ISBA-1P) with slightly better results for ISBA-MEB in predicting both total heat fluxes and evapotranspiration partition over the moderately open canopy of the Olive orchard site. Concerning plant transpiration in particular, the coupled approach ISBA-MEB provides better results than ISBA-1P and, to a lesser extent ISBA-2P with RMSEs of 1.60, 0.90, 0.70 mm/day and R2 of 0.43, 0.69 and 0.70 for ISBA-1P, -2P and MEB respectively. In addition, it is shown that the acceptable predictions of composite convective fluxes by ISBA-2P for the Olive orchard are obtained for the wrong reasons as neither of the two patches is in agreement with the observations because of a bad spatial distribution of the roots and of a lack of incoming radiation screening for the bare soil patch. This work shows that composite convection fluxes predicted by the SURFEX platform as well as partition of evapotranspiration in a highly transient regime due to irrigation is improved for moderately open tree canopies by the new coupled dual-source ISBA-MEB model. It also points out the need for further local scale evaluation on different crops of various geometry (more open rainfed or denser intensive olive orchard) to provide adequate parameterization to global data base such as ECOCLIMAP-II in the view of a global application of the ISBA-MEB model.

Ghizlane Aouade et al.
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Short summary
Our objective is to question the representation of the energy budget in surface–vegetation–atmosphere transfer models for the prediction of the convective fluxes on crops with complex structure (row) and under transient hydric regimes due to irrigation. The main results is that a coupled multiple energy balance approach is necessary to properly predict surface exchanges for these complex crops. It also points out the need for other similar studies on various crops with different sparcity level.
Our objective is to question the representation of the energy budget in...
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